eye conditions, refractive error simulation, astigmatism correction

Refractive Error – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

What are Refractive Errors ?

If your eye is out of focus it could be due to refractive error. This occurs when light rays do not properly focus on the retina.

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eye conditions, cataract simulation

Cataracts – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

What are cataracts ?

Cataracts are a clouding of the crystalline lens of the eye. This in turn affects vision. Cataracts form for many reasons but the most common is age.  It is normal for people over the age of 65 to have some mild form of cataracts. Causes of Cataract development include age, steroid use, trauma, radiation, or as a result of other eye conditions such as glaucoma.  Cataracts can occur in one or both eyes, sometimes years apart, but it cannot spread from one eye to another.

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eye conditions, keratoconus simulation

Keratoconus – Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

What is Keratoconus ?

Keratoconus is a thinning of the central zone of the cornea, the front surface of the eye. As a result of this thinning, the normally round shape of the cornea is distorted and a cone-like bulge develops, resulting in significant visual impairment. The cause of keratoconus remains unknown, although recent research seems to indicate that it may be genetic in origin. Certain allergic and arthritic disorders, Down’s syndrome, chronic eye rubbing, overexposure to sunlight and contact lens wear have occasionally been associated with this condition.

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eye conditions, pterygium simulation

Pterygium – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

What is Pterygium ?

A pterygium is a triangular shaped growth that covers the white part of the eye. It typically presents near the inner corner of the eye and can encroach onto the cornea towards the pupil.
It is composed of conjunctival tissue and can affect one or both eyes. The main cause of a pterygium is exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun.

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eye conditions, glaucoma simulation

Glaucoma – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

What is Glaucoma ?

Glaucoma is an eye disease which can damage the optic nerve. It typically occurs in people over the age of 60 and those with a family history. They have a build up of pressure inside the eye which results from either too much fluid formation, or a problem with drainage. This pressure in turn damages the delicate optic nerve fibres resulting in vision loss or even blindness. There are many types of glaucoma, but the most common is Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma  ( COAG ).

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Ptosis – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

What is Ptosis ?

Ptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid. The lid may droop only slightly, or it may cover the pupil entirely. In some cases, ptosis can restrict and even block normal vision. It can be present in children as well as adults.

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eye conditions, diabetic retinopathy simulation

Do you have Diabetic Eye Disease ?

What is Diabetic Retinopathy ?

Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes and a cause of blindness in Australia and worldwide. It results from damage to the fine blood vessels behind the eyes as a result of the diabetes. Bleeding or haemorrhage occurs when the new weakened blood vessels form and cannot sustain normal flow. Fluid can leak into the macular area which is responsible for clear, central sight. This in turn causes swelling or cystoid macular oedema (CMO). A healthy macula and retina are both vital for good vision.

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eye conditions, macular degeneration simulation

Macular Degeneration – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

What is Macular Degeneration ?

The macula is a small central area of the retina. Structures in the macula are specialised for high acuity vision. The macula is important for reading, driving, recognition of faces and fine detail. Damage to the macula, such as Macular Degeneration, can lead to a loss of central vision.

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Retinal Detachment Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatments

What is retinal detachment?

Retinal detachment is when the thin lining at the back of a person’s eye begins to pull away from the blood vessels that supply it with oxygen and nutrients.Without prompt treatment, the condition can lead to blindness in the affected eye.

Retinal detachment is most often the result of the retina becoming thinner and more brittle with age. It can also be caused by a direct injury to the eye.

It is a rare condition, one in every 10,000 people will develop a new case in any given year. As it is associated with aging, most people are affected between the ages of 50 and 75.

Retinal Detachment Symptoms

In most instances there are noticeable retinal detachment symptoms that indicate the retina is at risk of detaching before loss of sight. These include;

  • the appearance of floaters or dark spots in the field of vision
  • sudden short flashes of light in one eye
  • blurred or distorted vision.

If these symptoms occur urgent specialist eye examination is essential.


The condition is detected by specialist examination of the retina with pupil dilated


Prompt surgical repositioning of the retina is essential in order to preserve vision.


Early surgical correction can restore vision partly or completely depending on extent of the detachment.